Progress on AASHTO Pedestrian Guide?
ADA Doesn't Apply in Lone Star State?
New 600-Mile Bicycle Route Through Maine
Eugene (OR) Offers Neighborhood Grants
Good Bye to David Crites of GADOT..
Cantabrigians Express Themselves
Seen Any Good State Legislation Lately?
New Traffic Calming Web Site
The Shadow Speaks...
Walking for Electricity!
62km of Trails Coming to Edmonton
Two Guilty in Oz over Cyclist Bashing
'N Sinc Serenades Tour De I'Lle (Sort Of)
Lincoln Ped Bridge Costs Too Much
Sheffield (Uk) Cyclists Bopped by Trams
Valet Service Hits S.F. Bay Area Schools
PROGRESS ON DEVELOPMENT OF AASHTO PEDESTRIAN GUIDE?
Commentary by Bill Wilkinson
Since 1998, an effort has been under way to develop an
American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials' (AASHTO) "pedestrian guide." This was originally
conceived as a companion piece to the AASHTO bike guide
which has been around since 1974. The impetus for AASHTO
action on a ped guide came from the Transportation Equity
Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) sec. 1202,directing the
Secretary of Transportation to work with AASHTO and other
interested organizations to develop guidance on ac
commodating bicycle and pedestrian travel, including
recommendations on amending and updating the policies of
AASHTO relating to highway and street design standards to
accommodate bicyclists and pedestrians._
In response, AASHTO approved funds for a study to be
conducted by the Transportation Research Board's National
Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). The project's
objectives include developing a guide for planning, design,
and operation of pedestrian facilities. This will be
submitted to AASHTO for consideration for publication. An
NCHRP panel was convened (I am a member) to oversee the
project, a contractor was selected, and work began in 1999.
The NCHRP panel has just received and is reviewing a p
roposed final version of the NCHRP guide. If approved, it
will be forwarded to AASHTO. Regrettably, NCHRP does not
intend to publish an NCHRP report from this project (NOTE:
I don't know if this means that they plan to restrict
access to the NCHRP guide itself.)
There has been some ongoing "tension" or, perhaps,
confusion with regard to the relationship between the NCHRP
project and report, and the development of an AASHTO ped
guide. The NCHRP project is intended to produce a report
for consideration by AASHTO. In my opinion, this does not
mean that the NCHRP report has to be acceptable to AASHTO
-- AASHTO can (and likely will) make whatever changes it
sees fit to make in producing their pedestrian guide.
I have argued that the NCHRP report should not be dumbed
down to what it is believed (by some) that AASHTO will
accept; that is for AASHTO to decide. Rather, the NCHRP
report should put forth the best possible statement of how
to plan and design for pedestrian activity as an element of
good street and highway design and operation. I regret that
my opinion on this matter has not necessarily prevailed.
Still, I think the NCHRP report will end up being a good,
if occasionally flawed, guide to how to do it better (if
not always "best") for pedestrians.
Why does this stuff matter? Well, consider that for the
past 25+ years the AASHTO bicycle guide has been the de
facto standard for the design of bicycle facilities.
Similar status will likely be accorded to an AASHTO
pedestrian guide. What complicates matters, though, is that
there is great variation among the various state DOTs
(AASHTO's members) regarding their approach to pedestrian
facilities. Some of this is a due, in part, to the wide
variation in the nature of state highway systems: some
include many local, neighborhood streets, others do not. In
fact, much of the pedestrian activity in this country takes
place on streets and highways or other facilities owned and
maintained by local governments, not state DOTs.
Given this, it is critical that AASHTO ensure the active
participation of representatives of these agencies as well
as professionals within its member organizations (e.g., the
State DOT bicycle and pedestrian program managers) in its
review of the NCHRP report and the development of its
pedestrian guide. It is not appropriate or desirable to
have AASHTO publish a guide for the planning and design of
streets and highways to accommodate pedestrians that serves
only the narrow interests of the collective body of state
DOTs, rather than the much broader interests of local
government agencies and of pedestrians._
* * *
Jim Ercolano, pedestrian coordinator for the New York
State DOT, commenting on the ongoing process of developing
an AASHTO pedestrian guide_
"I was born and raised in the asthma capital of North
America, 'The Bronx,' and I still live with that condition
on a daily basis. I'm sure that the dramatic impact that
the Atlanta Olympic Games congestion mitigation measures
had on VMT, emissions, and asthma rates will begin to
influence public policy. We know that AASHTO is capable of
doing the 'right thing' based on the 1999 Bike Guide update
- so I'm optimistic that we can eventually nurture a
quality product. I admit its kind of discouraging, though,
when a state with the highest number of pedestrian crashes
in the nation (at a cost of approximately $2.5 billion
annually from 383 ped. fatalities and 17,407 injuries in
1999), the highest pedestrian traffic volumes, a $ 30
billion dollar sidewalk-based retail economy with 7 of the
10 most expensive (sidewalk-based) retail rent locations in
the U.S. and 5 of the most expensive in the world; still
hasn't had any opportunity for input into this Pedestrian
Guide. I'll do what I can to get our AASHTO represent
atives' support for greater input into the process. Since
over 80% of non-motorized fatalities and 65% of
non-motorized injuries are pedestrians, we need the best
guidance possible to meet these challenges."
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ADA DOESN'T APPLY IN LONE STAR STATE?
Thanks go to Cliff Cox of the Lone Star State for
alerting the pedestrian community to a bit of pending state
legislation that deserves a quick death. This latest
example of legislative brilliance would give local
municipalities in Texas the authority to allow passenger
cars and light trucks to park on a private driveway and
block the sidewalk if the driveway isn't otherwise long
Never mind that this would constitute a violation of the
Americans with Disabilities Act. And, obviously, we can't
expect these good folks to be inconvenienced by having to
park on the street. I suspect, the people who sponsored and
voted for this legislation probably aren't the ones trying
to walk to school in the morning, trying to take a baby for
a walk in a stroller, or trying to get to the bus stop. No,
they're probably worried about getting a ticket for
blocking the sidewalk with their SUVs. Yee-ha, cowpokes!
Thanks go to Ellen Vanderslice of America Walks for pulling
together the following information on how to address this
matter in a constructive way:
This bill is on Texas Governor Rick Perry's desk. The bill
will automatically become the law in UNLESS the Governor
VETOES it BEFORE JUNE 18th. If you can -- PLEASE contact
the Governor's office ASAP and ask him to VETO HB 674.
Citizens' Opinion Hotline
1-800-843-5789 for Texas callers
(512) 463-1782 for Austin and out-of-state callers
711/(512) 475-3165 TDD
Fax to office of Governor: (512) 463-1849
Office of the Governor, P.O. Box 12428, Austin, Texas
Here are some links for more information:
For the text of the bill, go to
http://www.capitol.state.tx.us/ and do a search on HB 674
The Governor's site: http://www.governor.state.tx.us/
To e-mail Governor Rick Perry follow the link from the Governor's
site or cut and paste this long URL:
Why am I asking you to take action today? The sidewalk
should be the place where pedestrians have priority. This
law puts us on a slippery slope: once you make the sidewalk
completely impassible, why have a sidewalk at all? Please
join me in spreading the word, and ask Governor Perry to
VETO HB 674. ---Bill Wilkinson
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NEW 600-MILE BICYCLE ROUTE THROUGH MAINE
According to a June 6th news release, "Bicycle riders
across Maine, or those visiting Maine on vacation, can now
get information on bike tours along the East Coast Greenway
from an Internet website maintained by the Maine Department
of Transportation. "These 618 miles of new bicycle routes
in Maine are a significant accomplishment, representing 20
different public meetings held last year to provide input
on these routes," explains John Balicki, MDOT's pedestrian
and bicycle coordinator. "Now people who want to ride some
of Maine's section of the Greenway can get detailed tour
information before they leave home or en route." Maine's
East Coast Greenway Bicycle Route extends from Kittery to
Calais, mainly along existing roads with a few off-road
paths included where possible.
For more information, go to:
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EUGENE (OR) OFFERS NEIGHBORHOOD GRANTS
The Eugene (OR) City Council offers Neighborhood
Matching Grants (NMG) as part of an ongoing program to
encourage people to collaboratively identify and actively
participate in ways to make their neighborhood better. Each
year, the City of Eugene offers $100,000 in grants for
projects of varying sizes.
In addition to concerts and park beautification projects,
the Grant program has helped fund such efforts as the West
Eugene Bike Path Beautification, the Whiteaker Urban
Sustainability Project, a Speed Abatement Plan for North
Polk Street, and a Traffic Calming Project on West 28th
For more information, go to:
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GOOD BYE TO DAVID CRITES OF GA DOT...
Effective June 30th, David Crites, the Georgia
Department of Transportation's Bicycle Pedestrian
Coordinator will be leaving his position and moving to
Charlotte, N.C., where his wife will take a new job. As
David puts it, "It has been an interesting 4 years here at
the Department and I will miss the challenges and rewards
of being the Bicycle and Pedestrian Coordinator."
Were sorry to see David go and hope he keeps involved (we
hear Charlotte has a lot of bike/ped action going!). Bill
Wilkinson of the NCBW said "David will be missed... a lot!
He's made real progress on helping the Georgia DOT develop
a new awareness of bicycling and walking as modes of
transportation, and of bicyclists and pedestrians as part
of the agency's clients. This kind of organizational change
is at the core of what 'agency advocacy' is all about. Many
thanks for all you're hard work, David!"
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CANTABRIGIANS EXPRESS THEMSELVES
"What do Julia Child, Robert Parker, and Florence Ladd
have in common? They all walk to get around Cambridge! The
City of Cambridge's new and exciting 'Express Yourself'
marketing campaign highlights well-known Cantabrigians
talking about why they walk, bike, or take the T instead of
driving. The ads also feature jazz singer Wanetta Jackson
riding the T, and humorist Jimmy Tingle and Harvard
professor Harvey Cox on their bikes."
The ads included in the "Express Yourself" campaign can be
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SEEN ANY GOOD STATE LEGISLATION LATELY?
Our friend, Leslie Robbins of the National Conference of
State Legislatures, could use some help. She writes,
"NCSL is a bipartisan organization serving lawmakers and
staffs of the nation's 50 states, the commonwealths, and
territories. NCSL offers research, publications, consulting
assistance, meetings and seminars to its constituents. As a
policy associate in the Prevention Projects Program, I help
educate our constituents about physical activity and
obesity issues. I am looking for recent and innovative
state legislation (bills or statutes) that is supportive of
physical activity/physically active environments (e.g.,
bicycle-friendly and walkable) and obesity prevention. I
will pass this information onto our constituents via our
website and our publications."
So, if you know of something in your state that either
passed or should have passed (!), please send information
to Leslie Robbins at email@example.com. Thanks for
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NEW TRAFFIC CALMING WEB SITE
The Federal Highway Administration inaugurated a new Web
site dedicated to all the known and/or electronically
publicized transportation programs and studies that pertain
to traffic calming. The site has info on the objectives of
traffic calming; traffic calming measures; links to traffic
calming programs; links to other related agencies; a list
of recent studies; and a list of upcoming events.
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THE SHADOW SPEAKS...ABOUT MEDIANS AND CRASH TESTING
According to our latest secret message, "the plot thickens
... there seems to be a pot brewing out there that is
suggesting that ANY raised curb on roadways 35 mph or above
is a hazard introduced into the roadway environment, which
when hit by the errant motorist doesn't deflect them back
into the travel stream - but rather projects them (the
errant vehicle) over the curb, median, whatever. AASHTO
and FHWA seem to be encouraging DOTs to 'crash test' these
designs - and if they fail (which medians do) -- then we
may be looking at them revising the Green Book and not
allowing curbs on roadways over 35 mph .. Even though that
is completely contrary to good urban design, CSD,
environmental concerns, pedestrian safety concerns, etc.
"Is 'crash testing' the right measure of a successful
design? What other factors can stand up in a court of law?
Only the Shadow knows for sure..."
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WALKING FOR ELECTRICITY!
According "Plastic Electricity," an ENN article
published May 29th, "In the future, you might literally get
a charge out of hiking, walking or cycling. Ron Pelrine and
a research team at SRI International in Menlo Park,
California, are developing a technology that might enable
you to generate your own electricity by stepping on special
plastic inserts in your shoes.
"Pelrine, a mechanical engineer, explains that his team's
research on alternative energy started out as a quest to
create artificial muscles that might allow more efficient
robotic motion. These "muscles" are created from a rubbery
plastic film coated with a type of grease that conducts
electricity. When electricity is applied to the grease, it
causes the plastic film to stretch out and move like a
For the rest of the story:
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62KM OF TRAILS COMING TO EDMONTON
According to a June 7th story in the Edmonton (Alberta)
Journal, "Eighty-four-year-old cyclist Jack Grainge along
with skateboarders, in-line skaters, joggers and others who
like to get around the city under their own power may soon
have a new network of pathways from the suburbs to the city
"City engineers in collaboration with EDA Collaborative
landscape architects and Earth Tech Canada are developing a
$17-million plan for a 62-km network over the next 10
years. 'There's been a fair bit of work on trails in the
river valley. Not enough has been done to bring the various
residential areas to the downtown core and the university,'
says EDA landscape architect Penny Dunford. Planning for
the new paths has been under way since September. Meetings
have been held with cyclists and other groups and a plan
will go to city council in late fall, says city engineer
"Big Ticket Items Include three overpasses and a
bike/pedestrian path slung under the Anthony Henday bridge
over the North Saskatchewan River..."
Title: "Taking the high road: Happy Trails: 62 Km to be
Added to Network"
Author: Don Thomas
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TWO GUILTY IN OZ OVER CYCLIST BASHING
According to a June 2nd Australian Broadcasting
Corporation story, "A Brisbane Supreme Court jury has found
a man guilty of attempted murder and a teenager guilty of
grevious bodily harm with intent, after the bashing of a
cyclist. Peter Cribb is permanently brain damaged following
the attack. The 22-year-old was cycling home from a party
in February last year along an inner-city bikeway when he
was set upon by a group of people.
"He was bashed unconscious and thrown into the Brisbane
river, sustaining severe brain damage. Today 27-year-old
Paul Dale Mullins was found guilty of attempted murder
and his co-accused, a 17-year-old who cannot be named,
was found guilty of grevious bodily harm with intent. A third
man has already pleaded guilty to the same charge.
Sentencing has been adjourned to a date yet to be fixed."
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'N SINC SERENADES TOUR DE I'LLE (SORT OF)
According to a June 4th story in the Montreal Gazette,
"For cyclists, full speed ahead. For pedestrians, a wait
for a break in the procession of pedal power. 'N Sync, the
boy band sensation, played the Tour de l'Ile this year.
Well ... not exactly. Five teenage pop-star hopefuls from
Point St. Charles and nearby neighbourhoods performed the
'N Sync hit It's Gonna be Me, complete with choreographed
moves, to a crowd of dancing onlookers, many of them
wearing bicycle helmets.
The performance, at Marguerite Bourgeoys Park in the Point,
was one of many that entertained the 30,000 cyclists who
participated in yesterday's tour. 'The music shows are
brand new this year,' said Suzanne Lareau, head of the
non-profit group that runs the tour, along with other
bicycle tours around Quebec. 'It gives the tour a fresh
feel ... It's a gray day but hearing (the music) really
puts a smile on your face.' There were five points during
the 66-kilometre tour where cyclists journeying from
downtown Montreal to the West Island and back could take a
break and listen to live music..."
Title: "Spurred on by music and rain"
Author: Lianne Elliott
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LINCOLN PED BRIDGE COSTS TOO MUCH
According to a June 7th story in the Lincoln (NE)
Journal Star, "Don't look for a pedestrian overpass to ease
parking woes for the Haymarket Park baseball complex yet
this season. Higher-than-expected bids have forced city
officials to start over on seeking bids - and to adopt a
more relaxed timeline - for building the planned link
between the baseball stadium and the Haymarket. Jim Visger,
manager of design and construction for Lincoln's
engineering services, said Wednesday the city only got two
bids on the project. One was for $3.8 million, the other
for $3.1 million. 'The city couldn't afford it,' he said.
'It was way too high.'
"City officials had hoped to keep the total cost of the
overpass at around $4 million, said Budget Officer Steve
Hubka. About $1.1 million already is obligated for
prefabricated bridge spans, which are to arrive this
summer. The current bids are for building approach ramps,
connecting spans and support towers that are needed on
either end of the prefabricated spans. The overpass will
run from Haymarket Park's center field area, at about Sixth
and Vine streets, across the Burlington Northern Santa Fe
Railroad tracks to Eighth and T streets, north and east of
the main post office. It will have two side-by-side
bridges, both available for pedestrians and bicyclists..."
Title: "Ballpark bridge bids too high"
Author: Martha Stoddard
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SHEFFIELD (UK) CYCLISTS BOPPED BY TRAMS
According to the Minerva column in the June 2nd issue of
the British Medical Journal, "The Sheffield Supertram was
introduced in 1994 as the city's solution to its public
transport requirements. The city's cyclists, however, seem
to have come off worst. Cyclists sustained almost half of
the 90 tram related injuries seen at the local casualty
department, with most of them suffering upper limb
fractures and head injuries (Injury 2001;32:275˜7)."
[See RESOURCE listing for info on study.]
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VALET SERVICE HITS S.F. BAY AREA SCHOOLS
According to a June 3rd story in the San Jose Mercury
News, "The drop-off zones at elementary schools all over
the Bay Area have become battlegrounds as frazzled parents
in a hurry converge at the same place at the same time,
double- and triple-parking their minivans and SUVs, honking
their horns and sometimes even getting into fights. But the
Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District thinks it
can calm the chaos with a new valet service. As parents
pull up to the Sunset and Jackson Street elementary schools
in the morning, fifth-graders open the doors and help young
passengers climb out. Since the program started two weeks
ago, the traffic problem has melted away, officials said.
"'There were fights, honking cars, accidents -- front- and
rear-endings,' said Mary Ziolkowski, a parent at Sunset.
'The water line at school was once taken out by a car. It
was a dangerous situation.' Cars now unload their student
passengers in front of the school, where the team of
volunteers opens doors and helps the young passengers
scramble out of the car. 'This takes no more than 30
seconds,' Principal David Cooper said. 'The car stops, kids
get safely out of the car onto the sidewalk, traffic flows
and there's no more gridlock.'..."
Title: "Two campuses in Livermore untangle traffic with
Author: T.T. Nhu
Cost: $1.95 (if over 7 days old)
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And now for something completely different:
TRICYCLE RACING GAME
"The Tricycle Racing game begins when each contestant
holds down their "player ready" button. This triggers the
start light cycle. Two reds, two yellows and one green
light illuminate one at a time, at which point the tricycle
race is enabled. Now when the contestants pedal the trikes,
each spoke will cause the visual racers (beenie babies) to
move forward. These spoke interrupts are actually causing a
stepper motor that is connected to a conveyer belt, upon
which the stuffed animals are attached, to spin. Once a
racer has reached the finish line, consisting of a
micro-switch, the game is over. Game over lights will
flash, the winner is awarded points, and the track is
reset. During reset, each player is driven by an internal
pulse until he trips a micro-switch indicating that he is
at the start. At this point, the player is disabled until
the next race begins.
"GOBAR TIMES: Environment for Kids"
"Carrushed!!" is the focus of issue No.18 (May 15, 2001)
from India's Centre for Science and Environment. Articles
include: "A history of automobiles must be equally a
history of environment and behaviour;"
"Scrrreeeechhh...Stop. Think;" "Reclaim the Streets'
"Critical Mass;" "Carfree Cities;" "Is faster better?;"
"Are we energy addicts?;" "Earth car free day 2001."
("Gobar means animal dung in Hindi. All of rural India uses
it in a variety of ways. Ways that exemplify sustainable
existence. That's why we use it, too.")
"WINNING BACK THE CITIES - THE EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE"
A paper presented by Jan Gehl & Lars GemzÌe at "Australia:
Walking the 21st Century: An International Walking
Conference," held Feb. 20-22, 2001 in Perth, Western
Australia. "Walking: A mode of transport - but much more.
Looking at walking as mainly a mode of transport, would be
almost as incomplete as having a conference on housing
where all the energy was spend discussing what goes on in
the corridors of the dwellings, without discussing what
goes on in the Living room, Dining room, bedroom and
kitchen. Beyond transportation walking is a potential
recreational activity. And surely walking is nearly always
a social activity as well..."
NOTE: Other papers presented at the Conference may be found
"CAMBRIDGE PEDESTRIAN PLAN"
According to Mark Fenton, Editor of Walking Magazine, the
new Cambridge (MA) plan is a model to follow. He recently
told City officials, "Do not doubt that what your are doing
is saving lives. Do not waver from your vision." The
Cambridge Pedestrian Plan describes the role of walking in
Cambridge, current City policies and projects, and the
direction of future pedestrian improvements.
"TRAM-RELATED INJURIES IN SHEFFIELD"
A study by Cameron IC, Harris NJ, Kehoe NJ. of the Prince
of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong,
People's Republic of China (published in Injury 2001
May;32(4):275-7). The aim of this study was to identify
the number of accidents and types of injury related to the
Supertram system in Sheffield, England. Out of 90 injury
victims, "31 sustained fractures, most commonly involving
the upper limb/shoulder girdle (63%), with cyclists suffering
83% of these serious upper limb injuries...Cyclists appear
to be the group at highest risk, followed by pedestrians
and motor vehicle users..."
"A REVIEW OF TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR RAMPS"
The Jan.1996 Final Report prepared for the U.S. Access
Board by Jon A. Sanford of North Carolina State University.
"With the significant change in demographics over the past
two decades and the projected increase in the number of
older people and people with disabilities, a reevaluation
of the current ADA requirements for the design of ramps for
their usability by current and anticipated populations
"INNER CITY BLUES"
A Christopher M. Cook documentary that examines "the
institutional and geographic racism that fueled white
flight, resulting in racial isolation, an ever-widening
racial gap, and growing chronic poverty in the inner city.
'Inner City Blues' looks for solutions to sprawl and urban
decline from pioneers of the 'new urbanism' movement,
'smart growth' advocates, and historians."
"FAT OF THE LAND"
Christopher M. Cook's "'Fat of the Land' picks up where
'Inner City Blues' left off. The second hour in this
two-part series explores the direction in which suburbs are
headed, and their impact on rural areas, agriculture, and
For information on both videos: http://www.greatlakestv.org
June 17, 2001, Fremont People-Power Solstice Parade,
Seattle, WA. Info: Fairmont Arts Council, (206) 547-7440
July 3-6, 2001,Environmental Design Research Association
(EDRA) Annual Meeting, Edinburgh, Scotland. Info: EDRA,
P.O. Box 7146, Edmond, OK 73083-7146, voice: (405)330-4863
fax: (405)330-4150, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
August 3-5, 2001, Bikefest 2001 - LAB's National Rally,
Altoona, PA. Info: League of American Bicyclists, voice:
(202) 822-1333, email: email@example.com
August 16-18, 2001, First National Congress of Pedestrian
Advocates, Oakland, CA. Info: AmericaWalks, email:
website: http://americawalks.org/news >
September 13-16, 2001, Rail~Volution: Envisioning the New
Frontier, San Francisco, CA. Info: (503) 823-6870.
September 17-21, 2001, Velo-city 2001, Edinburgh/Glasgow,
Scotland. Info: Meeting Makers Ltd, Jordanhill Campus, 76
Southbrae Drive, Glasgow G13 1PP, Scotland, voice: 0141 434
1500 fax: 434 1519, e-mail: Velo_city@meetingmakers.co.uk
September 21-22, 2001, New Zealand Cycling Conference 2001,
Chateau on the Park, Christchurch. Call for Papers out now.
Info: NZ Cycling Conference, PO Box 237, Christchurch, NZ,
voice: 03 371 1472, fax: 03 371 1864. email:
September 26-29, 2001, TrailLink 2001: the 3rd
International Trails and Greenways Conference,
St. Louis, MO. Info: Rails- to-Trails Conservancy,
voice: (202) 974-5152, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
October 4-6, 2001, Innovative Approaches to Understanding
and Influencing Physical Activity, Dallas, TX. Info: The
Cooper Institute, Dallas, TX.
Got something you'd like us to run? Send it to
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you identify the source in this way: "from CenterLines, the
e-newsletter of the National Center for Bicycling &
Contributors: Bill Wilkinson, Peter Moe, Peter Jacobsen,
Ellen Vanderslice, Harrison Marshall
Editor: John Williams Send news items to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Director: Bill Wilkinson
National Center for Bicycling & Walking 1506 21st St NW,
Suite 200, Washington D.C. 20036 Voice: (202) 463-6622
Fax: (202) 463-6625
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