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FILLING THE GAPS IN PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE RESEARCH
-> The "Fostering Innovation in Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation Pooled Fund (TPF) Study" (http://bit.ly/2Az4JUw) focuses on bicycle and pedestrian network planning, safety, design issues, traffic control devices, and other relevant issues as determined by TPF participants. The study supplements existing research and fills an important missing gap by emphasizing short turnaround practical research on issues immediately relevant to practitioners.

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH RECORD BICYCLE ISSUE
-> A recent issue of the Transportation Research Record, Volume 2662, is devoted to bicycle-related research. (http://bit.ly/2Ax2eCf) We will highlight several articles in this and future issues of CenterLines.

1. CROWDSOURCED CYCLING DATA & OFFICIAL REPORTING
-> A study assessed similarities and differences in near misses and collisions reported to BikeMaps.org; and in collisions reported to BikeMaps.org and to an official insurance data set. Analyses of the results indicated that crowdsourced collision data have potential to fill in gaps in reports to official collision sources and that crowdsourced near-miss reporting may be influenced by perceptions of risk. "Comparing Crowdsourced Near-Miss and Collision Cycling Data and Official Bike Safety Reporting" http://bit.ly/2AwPVWl

2. LOW-STRESS BICYCLE NETWORK MAPPING
-> The Washington, DC District DOT developed a bicycle level of traffic stress (LTS) map using existing roadway information, combined with an innovative GIS approach that prioritizes and expedites the collection of supplemental roadway information. The results confirmed existing perceptions about the availability of bicycle facilities in the District and identified previously unidentified gaps in the overall bicycle network. "Low-Stress Bicycle Network Mapping: The District of Columbia's Innovative Approach to Applying Level of Traffic Stress" http://bit.ly/2Aw8oT0

3. TYPOLOGIES OF URBAN CYCLISTS
-> One paper compared a set of cyclist typologies and the corresponding categorization methods and reviewed 20 studies that considered different cyclists' profiles. Profiles can better inform the different stages of planning for cycling infrastructure development by targeting more accurately the needs and requirements of different types of users. "Typologies of Urban Cyclists: Review of Market Segmentation Methods for Planning Practice" http://bit.ly/2AvD9Hz

4. BICYCLING IN RURAL, SMALL, AND LOW-DENSITY PLACES
-> A study compared the frequency of bicycling and the population characteristics of bicyclists across urban and rural, small, and low-density (RSLD) places. Researchers found bicycling was primarily, but not exclusively, an urban activity. Moreover, women and youths were more likely to bicycle in RSLD places compared with urban places. An urban perspective on bicycling could limit the success of initiatives aiming to increase the diversity of populations that bicycle. "The Reach of Bicycling in Rural, Small, and Low-Density Places" http://bit.ly/2AvGFBL

POVERTY & MINORITY STATUS RELATE TO HIGHER TRAFFIC
-> An article to be published in the Journal of Transport Geography notes estimates of the proportion of the US population living close to high-traffic roads range from 4-19%. These proportions are higher for minority and low-income populations. Researchers examined variation in residential exposure to traffic at regional and neighborhood scales and found that minority and lower socioeconomic status are systematically linked to higher exposure to traffic. Their geographically weighted regression approach has the potential to uncover patterns of disparities at a more localized level. "Urban Development Patterns and Exposure to Hazardous and Protective Traffic Environments" http://bit.ly/2yjsIBb

WHERE BIKE LANES COULD MOST EFFECTIVELY REDUCE CRASH RATES
-> A study to be published next March in Safety Science proposed to identify specific locations where bicycle lanes, if created, could most effectively reduce crash rates. Researchers found bicycle lanes reduced crash odds by 48% in streets segments adjacent to 4-exit intersections, by 40% in streets with one- or two-way stop intersections, and by 43% in high traffic volume streets. The presence of bicycle lanes was not associated with change in crash odds at intersections with less or more than 4 exits, at 4-way stop and signalized intersections, on one-way streets and streets with trolley tracks, and on streets with low-moderate traffic volume. The effectiveness of bicycle lanes appears to depend most on the configuration of the adjacent intersections and on the volume of vehicular traffic. "Where Do Bike Lanes Work Best? A Bayesian Spatial Model of Bicycle Lanes and Bicycle Crashes" http://bit.ly/2yiMfl8

MONITORING CITY WIDE PATTERNS OF CYCLING SAFETY
-> In its February issue, Accident Analysis & Prevention will publish an article describing a study that demonstrated a method for monitoring changes in the spatial-temporal distribution of cycling incidents across a city. The methods developed and demonstrated in this study provide city planners, transportation engineers and researchers a means of monitoring city-wide change in the intensity of cycling incidents following enhancements to cycling infrastructure or other significant changes to the transportation network. "Monitoring City Wide Patterns of Cycling Safety" http://bit.ly/2yjy27x

PED DECISION MAKING DURING TRAFFIC SIGNAL CLEARANCE PHASES
-> In its February issue, Accident Analysis & Prevention will publish an article reporting on a field study that analyzed pedestrian choices after arrival at a traffic signal clearance phase, evaluated the safety of their choices, and built a model to identify the predictors of pedestrian choices. Researchers found that pedestrians arriving during the clearance phase made dynamic decisions based on the changing contexts. These findings are essential for realistic pedestrian simulations and targeted safety countermeasures. They also imply the need for changes to certain traffic regulations and signal design to facilitate safe decision making at clearance phase. "Cross or Wait? Pedestrian Decision Making During Clearance Phase at Signalized Intersections" http://bit.ly/2yjzMOc

CHILDREN'S ASSESSMENT OF RISK
-> In its February issue, Accident Analysis & Prevention will publish an article that reports on assessments by 10-11 year old children of the frequency, danger and personal risk likelihood of 8 accidents. Children overestimated the frequency of rare accidents (e.g. drowning) , and underestimated the frequency of common accidents (e.g. bike crashes); and the majority of children showed unrealistic optimism tending to see themselves as less likely to suffer these accidents in comparison to their peers, offering superior skills or parental control of the environment as an explanation. They recognized the seriousness of pedestrian crashes, underestimated the frequency of this risk and regarded their own road crossing skill as protection. "Accident Frequency and Unrealistic Optimism: Children's Assessment of Risk" http://bit.ly/2yjADhS

BUILT ENVIRONMENT & OLDER ADULTS' PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & WALKING
-> The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity published a study that concluded safe, walkable, and aesthetically pleasing neighborhoods, with access to overall and specific destinations and services positively influenced older adults' physical activity (PA) participation. However, when considering the environmental attributes that were sufficiently studied (i.e., in =5 separate findings), the strength of evidence of associations of specific categories of environment attributes with PA differed across PA and environmental measurement types. "Built Environmental Correlates of Older Adults' Total Physical Activity and Walking: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" http://bit.ly/2AxVrbs

DECLINING CAR OWNERSHIP OF MILLENNIAL HOUSEHOLDS
-> The Transportation Research Record published a study that investigated the decline of car mobility, particularly among millennials, in the Puget Sound region of WA State, where transit ridership is increasing faster than in most other large metropolitan areas. Findings suggest that declining car mobility observed in the past decade or so is likely to persist in coming decades, and the trend will be reinforced where smart growth policies to make more livable and sustainable cities receive further momentum. "Carless or Car Later? Declining Car Ownership of Millennial Households in the Puget Sound Region, Washington State" http://bit.ly/2AwSBn8

MILLENNIAL HETEROGENEITY IN VEHICLE OWNERSHIP & USAGE
-> The Transportation Research Record published a study that this study investigated heterogeneity among millennials with respect to their driver's license–holding status, vehicle ownership, and commute mode choice. Millennials seem to become more automobile-oriented as they age and gain economic resources. Parenthood is associated with an increase in driver's license holding and personal vehicle ownership; however, in general, it does not seem to have a direct effect on commute mode choice. "Investigation of Heterogeneity in Vehicle Ownership and Usage for the Millennial Generation" http://bit.ly/2Ax3sxh

VEHICLE SPEEDS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 2016
-> The Centre for Automotive Safety Research at the University of Adelaide in Australia has released a report that summarizes vehicle speed data collected in 2016 and compares this to data dating back to 2002. This method for capturing speed data was introduced in 2007 to assess the effects of speed reduction countermeasures and to monitor the speed behavior of South Australian drivers over time. "Vehicle Speeds in South Australia 2016" http://bit.ly/2BY6ZkC

JOIN THE SCIENTISTS FOR CYCLING NETWORK
-> The European Cyclists' Federation (ECF) observes the increase in academic research on cycling is a welcome phenomena. However, to reinforce research and advocacy, ECF invites all researchers to get actively involved in the Scientists for Cycling network (http://bit.ly/2yksEkE) and to contribute to the issues that drive the advocacy agenda (http://bit.ly/2yk1tXh), for example by participating in the Call for Abstracts for the scientific sessions at Velo-city 2018 in Rio de Janeiro. http://bit.ly/2yk1tXh