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ACTIVE TRAVEL BEHAVIOR & SPATIAL-TEMPORAL LAND USE MIXING
-> This research examines the relationship between land use mix and (a) pedestrian travel when considering the complementarity, composition, and configuration of land use types; (b) mode choice when mix is operationalized at varying geographic scales; and (c) active travel behavior when temporal availability of activity locations is incorporated into a mix metric. (Active Travel Behavior and Spatial-Temporal Land Use Mixing) Links to downloads of several related reports are also included at http://bit.ly/2sYH5td.

[See Webinar section for July 25 webinar on this topic.]

NEIGHBORHOOD ENVIRONMENT & ACTIVE TRAVEL IN OLDER ADULTS
-> The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity published a study that systematically reviewed the literature on neighborhood physical environmental correlates of active transportation (AT) in older adults and applied a novel meta-analytic approach to statistically quantify the strength of evidence for environment-AT associations. Researchers found strong links between the neighborhood physical environment and older adults’ AT. Future research should focus on the identification of types and mixes of destinations that support AT in older adults and how these interact with individual characteristics and other environmental factors. Future research should also aim to clarify dose-response relationships through multi-country investigations and data-pooling from diverse geographical regions. “The Neighbourhood Physical Environment and Active Travel in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis” http://bit.ly/2srbu6p

BIKE NETWORK EFFECTS ON SAFETY & RIDERSHIP
-> Streetsblog USA asks which is more important to making a city great for biking: the number of high-quality bikeways, or whether they’re connected to each other? A new study from Spain published in Accident Analysis and Prevention found the amount of biking actually tracks most closely with the number of bikeways, while the safety of biking tracks most closely with the connectedness of bikeways. If you want lots of people biking safely, you eventually need both. (On the Effect of Networks of Cycle-Tracks on the Risk of Cycling. The Case of Seville: http://bit.ly/2t0ti5m) Researchers found bike network connectedness seems to immediately pay off in the form of lower risk to people biking. Every additional mile of protected bike lane somewhere in the city improved safety. But network connections improved safety most. http://bit.ly/2t09Ndj

MINNEAPOLIS, MN: SAFETY IN NUMBERS FOR CYCLISTS?
-> Safety in numbers (SIN) refers to the observable effect where an individual pedestrian or bicyclist’s safety is correlated with the number of pedestrians or bicyclists in an area. People walking a riding a bike in those places in the city with more pedestrians or bicyclists have a lower risk of getting hit by a car. Which comes first, the safety or the numbers? If a place is safe for biking, more people may bike there (particularly if useful destinations are nearby); if more people are already biking somewhere, then drivers may be more on the lookout. Researchers at the University of MN explored whether this SIN effect shows up in Minneapolis’ crash and traffic data. The goal of their study was to predict crash rates between cars and bicycles at street intersections—based on car and bike traffic levels—and then assess whether areas of the city exist that have much higher per-bicyclist crash rates. Overall, the predictive accuracy was not very good, with an average error of 82.6% in trying to predict the number of crashes that would occur based on traffic volumes alone. They did, however, observe evidence of the SIN effect—for every 1% increase in bicycle traffic, there was only a 0.5% increase in the predicted number of crashes. http://bit.ly/2sqx0rW

ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VISION ZERO
-> Governing reports new data is emerging that gives policymakers a better picture of where Vision Zero is working. One recent analysis of Vision Zero in New York City found that the improvements did seem to be working. (Poverty and Progress in New York City XI: Vision Zero and Traffic Safety: http://bit.ly/2t01rSK) The Manhattan Institute, a conservative think tank, concluded that pedestrian and cyclist deaths at intersections with safety treatments decreased by 34% from 2009 to 2016—far exceeding the 3% decrease during the same time for intersections that did not get new safety features. Lower-income neighborhoods remain the most dangerous for pedestrians and cyclists, who are 9 percent more likely to be injured or killed in traffic accidents in the 10 poorest New York neighborhoods than in residential neighborhoods as a whole.

DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS: IMPROVING PED SAFETY IN LOW INCOME AREAS
-> To improve pedestrian safety in low-income areas, a FL DOT study 1) developed a demographics-based methodology that identified low-income areas that possess a combination of “pre-conditions” for greater pedestrian hazard, 2) identified major factors associated with pedestrian crash frequency and injury severity and quantified their relationships, and 3) produced recommendations for both engineering countermeasures and pedestrian safety education or outreach plans that will resonate with a given area’s demographics. “Application of Demographic Analysis to Pedestrian Safety” http://bit.ly/2sqfe81

IMPROVING TRANSIT ACCESS FOR PEOPLE WALKING & BIKING
-> According to the State Smart Transportation Initiative, New research from the Mineta Transportation Institute contributes essential insights into improving transit access for nonmotorized transportation. (Improving Livability Using Green and Active Modes: A Traffic Stress Level Analysis of Transit, Bicycle, and Pedestrian Access and Mobility: http://bit.ly/2srk4lA) Researchers assert that a city should develop a low-stress road network while balancing these improvements with the desire for efficient transit service.

Most transit riders walk or bike to bus and train stations. However, transit stations often are located along high-speed or multi-lane road networks that effectively limit access to transit for these travelers. Improving the safety and comfort of nonmotorized users could allow transit to capture a larger share of trips. http://bit.ly/2sruulg

BIKING PREFERENCES IN LOW-INCOME AREAS MAY VARY BY RACE
-> Blacks and Hispanics living in Roxbury, MA, a low-income Boston neighborhood, prefer riding on safe-from-traffic bicycle routes such as cycle tracks—rather than biking with traffic in roadways—and they want more secure places to park their bicycles to prevent theft, according to a new Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health study. (Biking Practices and Preferences in a Lower Income, Primarily Minority Neighborhood: Learning What Residents Want: http://bit.ly/2sqL7xg) Researchers conducted resident surveys to learn about their biking preferences and biking habits. http://bit.ly/2sqnh50

LOS ANGELES, CA: SAFETY ANALYSIS OF ROAD DIET CORRIDORS
-> A UCLA student’s master’s capstone project conducted for the Los Angeles DOT studied road diets and their effects on crashes in Los Angeles. This project analyzed changes in rates of collisions, injuries, and severe and fatal injuries on 5 streets that received the “classic” road diet treatment in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2009. These road diets experienced statistically significant reductions in crash and injury rates of 32.4% and 36.7%. “Who Wins When Streets Lose Lanes? An Analysis of Safety on Road Diet Corridors in Los Angeles” http://bit.ly/2sZKhog