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NEIGHBORHOOD CHARACTERISTICS THAT SUPPORT BIKE COMMUTING
-> A study of 100 census tracts with the highest levels of bicycle commuting in the country used American Community Survey (ACS) journey-to-work data to identify neighborhoods with the highest levels of bicycle commuting. It paired each with a randomly selected census tract from the same county to uncover what factors influence bicycle commuting. http://1.usa.gov/1LhAP4F (Neighborhood Characteristics that Support Bicycle Commuting: Analysis of the Top 100 United States Census Tracts: http://bit.ly/1L5T35n)
CRASH RISK FACTORS & SAFETY RETURNS ON LOW VOLUME ROADS
-> The Oregon DOT released a report (Risk Factors Associated with High Potential for Serious Crashes) that estimates the crash risk of different road types on Oregon’s low volume roads based on their geometric configurations, roadside features, crash history, and traffic exposure. This crash risk index identifies potentially risky locations where safety treatments might be best targeted, and an economic analysis to determine which may result in the highest return on investment. http://1.usa.gov/1KYa6sr
LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS: CARS, TRANSIT, AND EMPLOYMENT OUTCOMES
-> "A Longitudinal Analysis of Cars, Transit, and Employment Outcomes" (http://bit.ly/1Lw4j0D) examines levels of automobile access in groups that have variable access: poor families, immigrants, and people of color. They further employ two new national datasets of access to jobs using public transit. These datasets help examine the effect of transit and automobile access on income growth over time within families. The research found that poor families, immigrants, and people of color (particularly blacks) are considerably more likely to transition into and out of car ownership frequently, and improving automobile access is associated with a decreased probability of future unemployment and with greater income gains. The costs of owning and maintaining a car may be greater than the income gains associated with increased car ownership. The research also found that living in areas with access to high-quality public transportation has no relationship with future earnings. However, transit serves an important purpose in providing mobility for those who cannot or choose not to own a car.
NATIONAL SURVEY: REPORTED & UNREPORTED MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES
-> NHTSA publishes crash statistics based on police accident reports, but many crashes are never reported to the police. Although unreported crashes are less severe than reported crashes, many people are injured. Treatment costs and any resulting missed workdays need to be included in the total cost of traffic crashes, as do vehicle repair costs, and costs to repair public and private roadside structures. A 1981 NHTSA-sponsored telephone survey estimated 47 percent of crashes go unreported. A 2008 update of the survey, completed in 2010, found approximately 30 percent of crashes go unreported. The survey asked if anyone had been injured as a driver, passenger, pedestrian, or if anyone was in a damaged vehicle where nobody sustained an injury. (National Telephone Survey of Reported and Unreported Motor Vehicle Crashes: http://1.usa.gov/1hn55yN)
KIDS, BUILT ENVIRONMENT, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & ACTIVE TRAVEL
-> A recently released study examined selected objectively-measured and child specific built environment attributes in relation to proportion of out-of-school time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and active travel in a group of 236 ethnically and socio-economically diverse children in Auckland, New Zealand. Street connectivity and distance to school were related to the proportion of trips made by active modes. Ratio of high speed to low speed roads and improved streetscape for active travel were related to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on weekdays only. Inconsistent results were found for destination accessibility. Local destinations (particularly schools) along a safe street network may be important for encouraging children's activity behaviors. (Associations Between the Neighbourhood Built Environment and Out of School Physical Activity and Active Travel: An Examination from the Kids in the City Study: http://bit.ly/1ZaHvYe)
OLDER ADULTS, DRIVING & COMMUNICATION W/ HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS
-> AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety has released its "Older Adults’ Preferences for Communication with Healthcare Providers About Driving" (http://bit.ly/1OiNCpL) report. This research synthesized 22 published qualitative studies to identify older adults’ preferences for communication about driving with healthcare providers. The synthesis of these qualitative studies with older drivers support suggestions advocating an empathetic and engaging approach to the emotionally-charged topic of driving. Findings also suggest that providers look for ways to make conversations both routine but also context specific and individualized.
IMPACT OF BORING CITYSCAPES
-> How does a megastructure – plopped into a neighborhood populated with tiny bars and restaurants, bodegas, pocket parks, playgrounds and many different styles of housing – influence the psychological state of the urban pedestrian? What happens inside the minds of city-dwellers who turn out of tiny, historic restaurants and encounter nothing but empty sidewalk, a long bank of frosted glass on one side, and a steady stream of honking taxicabs on the other? To study behavior effects of street design, groups of participants walked specific blocks wearing bracelets that measured their skin conductance – a simple but reliable window into their alertness, readiness to act, pay attention or respond to threat. http://bit.ly/1QTQvLs
FREE TRB GUIDANCE: HOW TO DO LIT SEARCHES, DO & PRESENT RESEARCH
-> TRB recorded presentations, available at no cost, highlight TRB Electronic Circular E-C194: Literature Searches and Literature Reviews for Transportation Research Projects (http://bit.ly/1PgMlyV). Panelists present step-by-step procedures on how to build strategies to search databases, web resources, and more; plus ways to conduct research and how to review, organize, and present the literature search results. http://bit.ly/1FV0ijF
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