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NCBW Newsroom - The Research Beat

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PED & BICYCLIST DATA ANALYSIS
-> The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration published a research note that presents fatality and injury data regarding both pedestrians and bicyclists, and identifies similarities and differences between them. The first section (Fatality Trend Data From 1980 to 2015) examines long-term trends for both types of fatalities over a period of 35 years, from 1980 to 2015. The second section (Fatalities in 2010 to 2015 combined) examines selected characteristics of both types of fatalities, based on a recent "snapshot." The third section (Analysis of Speed Based on Fatalities and Injuries in 2010 to 2015 combined) focuses on pedestrian and bicyclist safety issues not previously included in NHTSA Traffic Safety Fact Sheets that are relevant to Vision Zero goals: posted speed limits on roadways where fatal and non-fatal injury crashes took place, and the involvement of speeding (driving over the posted speed limit or driving too fast for conditions). "Pedestrian and Bicyclist Data Analysis" http://bit.ly/2CfsXEq

COMMUTING BY BIKE MAKE PEOPLE HAPPY, TRANSIT NOT SO MUCH
-> Mobility Lab reported research has confirmed yet again that biking for transportation makes people happy. (Daily Travel Behavior and Emotional Well-Being: Effects of Trip Mode, Duration, Purpose, and Companionship: http://bit.ly/2TIlp5q) This study, published in Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, also notes that of all transportation modes, public transit makes people the least happy. Researchers analyzed data from the American Time Use Survey (http://bit.ly/2TK7wnf) to find out how people across the United States felt during daily trips and what factors influenced their emotions. http://bit.ly/2TKxQOg

RACIAL GAP BETWEEN WHO CAUSES AIR POLLUTION & WHO BREATHES IT
-> NPR reported pollution, much like wealth, is not distributed equally in the US. Scientists and policymakers have long known that black and Hispanic Americans tend to live in neighborhoods with more pollution of all kinds, than white Americans. And because pollution exposure can cause a range of health problems, this inequity could be a driver of unequal health outcomes across the US. A study published in PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America) adds a new twist to the pollution problem by looking at consumption. (Inequity in Consumption of Goods and Services Adds to Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Air Pollution Exposure: http://bit.ly/2TKVnP6) While we tend to think of factories or power plants as the source of pollution, those polluters wouldn't exist without consumer demand for their products. https://n.pr/2TL5Kma

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE FROM AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION IN EUROPE
-> The European Heart Journal published a study in which researchers estimated excess cardiovascular mortality attributed to air pollution in Europe. Their results provide new data based on novel hazard ratio functions suggesting that the health impacts attributable to ambient air pollution in Europe are substantially higher than previously assumed, though subject to considerable uncertainty. The annual excess mortality rate from ambient air pollution in Europe is 790 000 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 645 000-934 000], and 659 000 (95% CI 537 000-775 000) in the 29 countries in the European Union. "Cardiovascular Disease Burden from Ambient Air Pollution in Europe Reassessed Using Novel Hazard Ratio Functions" http://bit.ly/2FfufgV

EQUITABLE APPROACH TO PAYING FOR ROADS
-> The Institute of Transportation Studies at the University of California at Berkeley released a report that provides an overview of transportation user fees to develop pricing mechanisms that move closer to the user-pays principle. (An Equitable and Integrated Approach to Paying for Roads in a Time of Rapid Change: http://bit.ly/2Cs4uJL) This report segments travel into three categories -long haul, the last mile, and at the curb-to create a new typology for transportation pricing and access mechanisms. The report investigates distributional cost burdens through a case study in CA that used a parametric mileage-based user fee. Compared to a gas tax and flat mileage-based fee, a parametric structure may produce a better distribution of cost burdens.

[See Regional and Local Actions section for the Charging Drivers by Distance Driven vs. Fuel Consumed item that reports on a panel discussion of mileage-based user fees and the OR DOT pilot program.]

TRANSIT RAISES PROPERTY VALUES, LOWERS POVERTY
-> Streetsblog USA reported neighborhoods with transit access enjoy higher property values and lower poverty rates, according to a new study in Urban Publications. (GCRTA Economic Impact and Contributions to Local Economy: Main Findings: http://bit.ly/2TN80t2) Researchers found that neighborhoods that gained access to transit saw property values rise by 3.5% and poverty rates fall by almost 13% after 10 years. Those neighborhoods saw overall employment climb 3.5%. http://bit.ly/2TMHYpy

BIKE SHARING HISTORY, IMPACTS, MODELS & FUTURE
-> The Journal of Public Transportation published a paper that discusses the history of bike sharing from the early 1st generation program to present day 3rd generation programs. Included are a detailed examination of models of provision, with benefits and detriments of each, and a description of capital and operating costs. The paper concludes with a look into the future through discussion about what a 4th generation bike-sharing program could be. "Bike-Sharing: History, Impacts, Models of Provision, and Future" http://bit.ly/2Jy0LQK

CALL FOR INPUT ON SENIOR MOBILITY TAXONOMY UPDATE
-> The Transportation Research Board ANB60 Committee for Safe Mobility of Older Persons is calling for input as they update the July 2016 Taxonomy and Terms for Stakeholders in Senior Mobility (http://bit.ly/2W0biFS). Review the taxonomy and offer your comments/edits about any of the current terms or add suggestions for additional terms or potential revision of how the circular is structured.
Deadline: May 10,2019 https://bit.ly/2VWtH6y

FHWA PED & BIKE RESEARCH & PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
-> FHWA published a report of recent and ongoing pedestrian and bicycle research efforts and related activities, organized by four goals from the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Strategic Plan for FY 2018-2022: Safety, Infrastructure, Innovation, and Accountability. (Federal Highway Administration Pedestrian and Bicycle Research and Program Activities: http://bit.ly/2THlXZy) These tools and resources support multimodal transportation projects that improve connectivity, accessibility, safety, and convenience for all users.

NHTSA SUMMARY: NEW & ONGOING PED & BIKE SAFETY RESEARCH
-> The Human Environment Digest reported that National Highway Traffic Safety Administration released a summary of their new and ongoing research programs for pedestrian and bicycle safety. It includes a list of resources and information about upcoming projects and reports from the Office of Safety Programs. Pedestrian and Bicycle - TRB 2019: http://bit.ly/2SMJOSf