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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH RECORD PEDESTRIAN ISSUE
-> The Transportation Research Board recently released its Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2661 with 14 papers that explore pedestrian issues (http://bit.ly/2giox1I), including:

1) PEDESTRIAN ACCESSIBILITY TOOL ANALYSIS FOR GIS
-> The proposed pedestrian accessibility tool can be behaviorally calibrated, has been implemented as a geographic information system tool, and is published as open source software. It allows users to evaluate the walkability of existing and future urban plans; calculates Hansen-based accessibility indicators with the use of a customizable specification of the generalized walking costs; and incorporates user-defined weights of destination attractiveness. Three case studies show real-world applications of the tool to support the planning of pedestrian infrastructure in an urban context. http://bit.ly/2ghn8Zi

2) MEASURING WALKING ACCESSIBILITY IN METROPOLITAN AREAS
-> This paper presents a new index for measuring walkability in metropolitan areas, including walkability levels for diversity and intensity of uses in spatial areas while considering the travel distance and time as travel impedance between origins and destinations. The idea formulates a location-based walking access index (WAI) for quantifying accessibility within local areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Geographic information system software computes distances between origins and destinations. The "Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel and Activity" (VISTA) was evaluated the new index and examined the association between walking trips and levels of accessibility within the metropolitan region. The WAI has a stronger association with recorded walking trips, and more walking trips are recorded in areas with higher values of the WAI. http://bit.ly/2ghnAqs

3) REVIEW OF BOLLARD-LEVEL PEDESTRIAN CROSSWALK LIGHTING
-> A review of published literature, as well as the demonstration activities summarized, indicates the potential for bollard-level crosswalk lighting to enhance pedestrian visibility and to improve safety at crosswalks, particularly at locations where the presence of a crosswalk might not be expected by approaching drivers. Such locations include midblock crossings, roundabouts, and locations near schools and other public venues that might experience high levels of pedestrian traffic at sporadic or unexpected times. http://bit.ly/2ggG6zr

[See Webinar section for "Street lighting - Best Practices and Innovations in Illumination Technology" on November 15, 2017.]

4) ESTIMATING PEDESTRIAN EXPOSURE FOR SMALL URBAN & RURAL AREAS
-> This study synthesized previous studies and recommend methods for estimating pedestrian exposure in rural and small urban areas. Researchers found 5 general types of exposure metrics including area-based measures, more granular metrics at the point or segment level, and advanced metrics that utilize the behavioral attributes of walk trips. Researchers also used a finite mixture model to estimate a household-level pedestrian exposure measure for rural and small urban settings with the use of the National Household Travel Survey 2009 data. http://bit.ly/2gikKBF

Two papers addressed issues faced by people walking who are blind: "Wayfinding Problems for Blind Pedestrians at Noncorner Crosswalks Novel Solution" (http://bit.ly/2gja1aj) and "Beaconing Signalization Substantially Reduces Blind Pedestrians' Veer on Snow-Covered Pavement" (http://bit.ly/2ghoLpS).

RACIAL BIAS IN DRIVER YIELDING BEHAVIOR AT CROSSWALKS
-> The National Institute for Transportation and Communities reports on a recently published study that explored social identity-related factors that influence drivers' behaviors in interactions with pedestrians at crosswalks. Researchers conducted a controlled field experiment in which Black and White male and female pedestrians, wearing identical clothing, crossed the street at two different types of crosswalks (unmarked vs. marked), while trained coders marked drivers' yielding behavior. Overall stopping rates were very low at the unmarked crosswalk, and few differences emerged based on pedestrian race and gender. When the crosswalk became marked, stopping rates greatly increased; however, treatment was less equitable. "Racial Bias in Driver Yielding Behavior at Crosswalks: Understanding the Effects" http://bit.ly/2yqtAYI

[See Webinar section for Racial Bias in Driver Yielding Behavior at Crosswalks: Understanding the Effects" on October 26, 2017.]

DRIVERS' ATTITUDES & BEHAVIORS TOWARD BICYCLISTS
-> The National Institute for Transportation and Communities summarizes a dissertation that explores the social-psychological roots of roadway interactions between drivers and cyclists. The research for this dissertation focused on the dimensions of drivers' attitudes toward bicyclists, including implicit bias and social attitudes, and examined the relationships between these attitudes and drivers' self-reported safety behaviors by means of an online survey. Findings from the study indicate that it is possible to measure an implicit preference for drivers or bicyclists. Results support the hypothesis that roadway user groups have socially constructed meanings for drivers that evoke a subconscious bias. Implicit bias against bicyclists, for example, helped predict whether or not a driver self-reported that they habitually checked for bicyclists before making a right turn. "Exploring Drivers' Attitudes and Behaviors toward Bicyclists: The Effect of Explicit and Implicit Attitudes on Self-Reported Safety Behaviors" http://bit.ly/2yqJVgg

HEALTH CO-BENEFITS & CARBON REDUCTIONS OF ACTIVE TRANSPORT
-> The Journal of Transport & Health published research that quantified health co-benefits and carbon reductions of preferred scenarios of CA regional transportation plans and alternatives with ambitious levels of active transport. The alternatives were designed to examine the efficacy of independent contributions of walking, bicycling, and transit at levels consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General recommendation for physical activity. Using data from travel and health surveys, vital statistics, collision databases, and outputs from regional and statewide travel models, the Integrated Transport and Health Impacts Model estimated the change in the population disease burden. With anticipated population growth, no alternative achieved decreases in carbon emissions but bicycling had the greatest potential for slowing their growth. "Health and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Benefits of Ambitious Expansion of Cycling, Walking, and Transit in California" http://bit.ly/2yuQBqV

ECONOMIC BURDEN OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY
-> The British Journal of Sports Medicine reports on a systematic review of 40 studies and summary of the literature addressing the economic burden of physical inactivity, with focus on reviewing current methodological approaches to form future research recommendations. The current review reinforces the economic burden associated with physical inactivity, and highlights the need for investment in strategies to address this issue at a societal level. The study also recognizes current limitations regarding consistency of existing literature, prompting the need for robust future research that can support policy changes, effective resource distribution and initiatives to address the global issue of physical inactivity. "The Economic Burden of Physical Inactivity: A Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal" http://bit.ly/2gj8gJT